## Digital Communications Fundamentals and Applications

### Digital Communications Fundamentals and Applications by Bernard Sklar

### Table of contents :

Cover Page

About This eBook

Title Page

Copyright Page

Dedication Page

Contents at a Glance

Contents

Preface

Organization of the Book

Additional Book Resources

Acknowledgments

About the Authors

Chapter 1. Signals and Spectra

1.1 Digital Communication Signal Processing

1.2 Classification of Signals

1.3 Spectral Density

1.4 Autocorrelation

1.5 Random Signals

1.6 Signal Transmission Through Linear Systems

1.7 Bandwidth of Digital Data

1.8 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 2. Formatting and Baseband Modulation

2.1 Baseband Systems

2.2 Formatting Textual Data (Character Coding)

2.3 Messages, Characters, and Symbols

2.4 Formatting Analog Information

2.5 Sources of Corruption

2.6 Pulse Code Modulation

2.7 Uniform and Nonuniform Quantization

2.8 Baseband Transmission

2.9 Correlative Coding

2.10 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 3. Baseband Demodulation/Detection

3.1 Signals and Noise

3.2 Detection of Binary Signals in Gaussian Noise

3.3 Intersymbol Interference

3.4 Equalization

3.5 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 4. Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation/Detection

4.1 Why Modulate?

4.2 Digital Bandpass Modulation Techniques

4.3 Detection of Signals in Gaussian Noise

4.4 Coherent Detection

4.5 Noncoherent Detection

4.6 Complex Envelope

4.7 Error Performance for Binary Systems

4.8 M-ary Signaling and Performance

4.9 Symbol Error Performance for M-ary Systems (M>2)

4.10 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 5. Communications Link Analysis

5.1 What the System Link Budget Tells the System Engineer

5.2 The Channel

5.3 Received Signal Power and Noise Power

5.4 Link Budget Analysis

5.5 Noise Figure, Noise Temperature, and System Temperature

5.6 Sample Link Analysis

5.7 Satellite Repeaters

5.8 System Trade-Offs

5.9 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 6. Channel Coding: Part 1: Waveform Codes and Block Codes

6.1 Waveform Coding and Structured Sequences

6.2 Types of Error Control

6.3 Structured Sequences

6.4 Linear Block Codes

6.5 Error-Detecting and Error-Correcting Capability

6.6 Usefulness of the Standard Array

6.7 Cyclic Codes

6.8 Well-Known Block Codes

6.9 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 7. Channel Coding: Part 2: Convolutional Codes and Reed–Solomon Codes

7.1 Convolutional Encoding

7.2 Convolutional Encoder Representation

7.3 Formulation of the Convolutional Decoding Problem

7.4 Properties of Convolutional Codes

7.5 Other Convolutional Decoding Algorithms

7.6 Reed–Solomon Codes

7.7 Interleaving and Concatenated Codes

7.8 Coding and Interleaving Applied to the Compact Disc Digital Audio System

7.9 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 8. Channel Coding: Part 3: Turbo Codes and Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes

8.1 Turbo Codes

8.2 Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes

Appendix 8A: The Sum of Log-Likelihood Ratios

Appendix 8B: Using Bayes’ Theorem to Simplify the Bit Conditional Probability

Appendix 8C: Probability that a Binary Sequence Contains an Even Number of Ones

Appendix 8D: Simplified Expression for the Hyperbolic Tangent of the Natural Log of a Ratio of Binary Probabilities

Appendix 8E: Proof that ϕ(x) = ϕ–1(x)

Appendix 8F: Bit Probability Initialization

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 9. Modulation and Coding Trade-Offs

9.1 Goals of the Communication System Designer

9.2 Error-Probability Plane

9.3 Nyquist Minimum Bandwidth

9.4 Shannon–Hartley Capacity Theorem

9.5 Bandwidth-Efficiency Plane

9.6 Modulation and Coding Trade-Offs

9.7 Defining, Designing, and Evaluating Digital Communication Systems

9.8 Bandwidth-Efficient Modulation

9.9 Trellis-Coded Modulation

9.10 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 10. Synchronization

10.1 Receiver Synchronization

10.2 Synchronous Demodulation

10.3 Loop Filters, Control Circuits, and Acquisition

10.4 Phase-Locked Loop Timing Recovery

10.5 Frequency Recovery Using a Frequency-Locked Loop (FLL)

10.6 Effects of Phase and Frequency Offsets

10.7 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 11. Multiplexing and Multiple Access

11.1 Allocation of the Communications Resource

11.2 Multiple-Access Communications System and Architecture

11.3 Access Algorithms

11.4 Multiple-Access Techniques Employed with INTELSAT

11.5 Multiple-Access Techniques for Local Area Networks

11.6 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 12. Spread-Spectrum Techniques

12.1 Spread-Spectrum Overview

12.2 Pseudonoise Sequences

12.3 Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems

12.4 Frequency-Hopping Systems

12.5 Synchronization

12.6 Jamming Considerations

12.7 Commercial Applications

12.8 Cellular Systems

12.9 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 13. Source Coding

13.1 Sources

13.2 Amplitude Quantizing

13.3 Pulse Code Modulation

13.4 Adaptive Prediction

13.5 Block Coding

13.6 Transform Coding

13.7 Source Coding for Digital Data

13.8 Examples of Source Coding

13.9 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 14. Fading Channels

14.1 The Challenge of Communicating over Fading Channels

14.2 Characterizing Mobile-Radio Propagation

14.3 Signal Time Spreading

14.4 Time Variance of the Channel Caused by Motion

14.5 Mitigating the Degradation Effects of Fading

14.6 Summary of the Key Parameters Characterizing Fading Channels

14.7 Applications: Mitigating the Effects of Frequency-Selective Fading

14.8 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 15. The ABCs of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing)

15.1 What Is OFDM?

15.2 Why OFDM?

15.3 Getting Started with OFDM

15.4 Our Wish List (Preference for Flat Fading and Slow Fading)

15.5 Conventional Multi-Channel FDM versus Multi-Channel OFDM

15.6 The History of the Cyclic Prefix (CP)

15.7 OFDM System Block Diagram

15.8 Zooming in on the IDFT

15.9 An Example of OFDM Waveform Synthesis

15.10 Summarizing OFDM Waveform Synthesis

15.11 Data Constellation Points Distributed over the Subcarrier Indexes

15.12 Hermitian Symmetry

15.13 How Many Subcarriers Are Needed?

15.14 The Importance of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) in OFDM

15.15 An Early OFDM Application: Wi-Fi Standard 802.11a

15.16 Cyclic Prefix (CP) and Tone Spacing

15.17 Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Use of OFDM

15.18 Drawbacks of OFDM

15.19 Single-Carrier OFDM (SC-OFDM) for Improved PAPR Over Standard OFDM

15.20 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Chapter 16. The Magic of MIMO (Multiple Input/Multiple Output)

16.1 What is MIMO?

16.2 Various Benefits of Multiple Antennas

16.3 Spatial Multiplexing

16.4 Capacity Performance

16.5 Transmitter Channel-State Information (CSI)

16.6 Space-Time Coding

16.7 MIMO Trade-Offs

16.8 Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO)

16.9 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Index

Chapter 17. Encryption and Decryption

17.1 Models, Goals, and Early Cipher Systems

17.2 The Secrecy of a Cipher System

17.3 Practical Security

17.4 Stream Encryption

17.5 Public Key Cryptosystems

17.6 Pretty Good Privacy

17.7 Conclusion

References

Problems

Questions

Appendix A. A Review of Fourier Techniques

A.1 Signals, Spectra, and Linear Systems

A.2 Fourier Techniques for Linear System Analysis

A.3 Fourier Transform Properties

A.4 Useful Functions

A.5 Convolution

A.6 Tables of Fourier Transforms and Operations

A.7 sampled data fourier transform

References

Appendix B. Fundamentals of Statistical Decision Theory

B.1 Bayes’ Theorem

B.2 Decision Theory

B.3 Signal Detection Example

References

Appendix C. Response of a Correlator to White Noise

Appendix D. Often-Used Identities

Appendix E. S-Domain, Z-Domain, and Digital Filtering

E.1 The Laplace Transform

E.2 The z-transform

E.3 Digital Filtering

E.4 Finite Impulse Response Filter Design

E.5 Infinite Impulse Response Filter Design

References

Appendix F. OFDM Symbol Formation with an N-Point Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT)

Appendix G. List of Symbols

### Digital communications : : fundamentals and applications

Author(s): Fredric J. Harris; Bernard Sklar

Year: 2021

ISBN: 9780134588568