**Electric Generators Handbook Variable Speed Generators Second Version by Ion Boldea**

**Electric Generators Handbook – Two Volume Set: Variable Speed Generators, Second Edition PDF**

Author(s): Ion Boldea

Publisher: CRC Press, Year: 2015

ISBN: 1498723578,9781498723572

E-book Particulars : | |
---|---|

Language | English |

Pages | 590 |

Format | |

Dimension | 13 MB |

Preface

The primary version of this single-author, two-book set was printed in 2006. Since then, electrical power, “produced” principally by way of electrical turbines, has change into one of many foremost actions in our international economic system world. The topic of electrical turbines (Synchronous Generators and Variable Speed Generators as two books) attracted particular consideration worldwide each from business and academia within the final decade. Electric turbines’ design and management could represent a brand new graduate course in universities with electrical energy applications. Additionally, within the design and management of electrical turbines for purposes starting from power conversion to electrical autos (transportation) and auxiliary energy sources, new data and developments have been printed within the final ten years. Within the final ten years, in wind turbines alone, the put in energy has elevated from some 40,000 MW to 300,000 MW (in 2014). In view of those developments, we determined to give you a brand new version that • Retains the construction of the primary version to keep away from confusion for customers • Retains the type with many numerical worked-out examples of sensible curiosity, along with extra full case research • Contains textual content and quantity corrections • Provides fairly just a few new paragraphs in each books, totaling round 100 pages, as an instance synthetically the progress within the subject within the final decade.

**Description:**

Variable Speed Generators, the second of two volumes in the Electric Generators Handbook, provides extensive coverage of variable speed generators in distributed generation and renewable energy applications around the world. The book delves into the steady state, transients, control, and design of claw-pole-rotor synchronous, induction, permanent-magnet-(PM)-assisted synchronous, and switched reluctance starter alternators for electric hybrid vehicles. It discusses PM synchronous, transverse flux PM, and flux reversal PM generators for low-speed wind and hydro energy conversion. It also explores linear motion alternators for residential and spacecraft applications. Numerous design and control examples illustrate the exposition.

Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, this Second Edition adds new sections that:

Address the ride-through control of doubly fed induction generators under unbalanced voltage sags

Consider the control of stand-alone doubly fed induction generators under unbalanced nonlinear loads

Detail a stand-alone squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) with AC output and a low-rating pulse-width modulated (PWM) converter

Present a twin stator winding SCIG with 50 percent rating inverter and diode rectifier, and a dual stator winding induction generator with nested cage rotor

Examine interior permanent magnet claw-pole-alternator systems for more vehicle braking energy recuperation, and high power factor Vernier PM generators

Depict a PM-assisted reluctance synchronous motor/generator for an electric hybrid vehicle, and a double stator switched reluctance generator with segmented rotor

Describe the grid to stand-alone transition motion-sensorless dual-inverter control of permanent magnet synchronous generators with asymmetrical grid voltage sags and harmonics filtering

The promise of renewable, sustainable energy rests on our ability to design innovative power systems that are able to harness energy from a variety of sources. Variable Speed Generators, Second Edition supplies state-of-the-art tools necessary to design, validate, and deploy the right power generation technologies to fulfill tomorrow’s complex energy needs.

**Table of contents :**

Chapter 1: Wound Rotor Induction Generators (WRIGs): Steady State

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Construction Elements

1.2.1 Magnetic Cores

1.2.2 Windings and Their mmfs

1.2.3 Slip-Rings and Brushes

1.3 Steady-State Equations

1.4 Equivalent Circuit

1.5 Phasor Diagrams

1.6 Operation at the Power Grid

1.6.1 Stator Power vs. Power Angle

1.6.2 Rotor Power vs. Power Angle

1.6.3 Operation at Zero Slip (S = 0)

1.7 Autonomous Operation of WRIG

1.8 Operation of WRIG in the Brushless Exciter Mode

1.9 Losses and Efficiency of WRIG

Chapter 2: Wound Rotor Induction Generators: Transients and Control

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The WRIG Phase Coordinate Model

2.3 The Space-Phasor Model of WRIG

2.4 Space-Phasor Equivalent Circuits and Diagrams

2.5 Approaches to WRIG Transients

2.6 Static Power Converters for WRIGs

2.6.1 Direct AC–AC Converters

2.6.2 DC Voltage Link AC–AC Converters

2.7 Vector Control of WRIG at Power Grid

2.7.1 Principles of Vector Control of Machine (Rotor)-Side Converter

2.7.2 Vector Control of Source-Side Converter

2.7.3 Wind Power WRIG Vector Control at the Power Grid

2.7.3.1 The Wind Turbine Model

2.7.3.2 The Supply-Side Converter Model

2.7.3.3 The Generator-Side Converter Model

2.7.3.4 Simulation Results

2.7.3.5 Three-Phase Short-Circuit on the Power Grid

2.7.3.6 Mechanism to Improve the Performance during Fault

2.8 Direct Power Control (DPC) of WRIG at Power Grid

2.8.1 The Concept of DPC

2.9 Independent Vector Control of Positive and Negative Sequence Currents

2.10 Motion-Sensorless Control

2.11 Vector Control in Stand-Alone Operation

2.12 Self-Starting, Synchronization, and Loading at the Power Grid

2.13 Voltage and Current Low-Frequency Harmonics of WRIG

Chapter 3: Wound Rotor Induction Generators (WRIGs): Design and Testing

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Design Specifications — An Example

3.3 Stator Design

3.4 Rotor Design

3.5 Magnetization Current

3.6 Reactances and Resistances

3.7 Electrical Losses and Efficiency

3.8 Testing of WRIGs

Chapter 4: Self-Excited Induction Generators

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Cage Rotor Induction Machine Principle

4.3 Self-Excitation: A Qualitative View

4.4 Steady-State Performance of Three-Phase SEIGs

4.4.1 Second-Order Slip Equation Methods

4.4.2 SEIGs with Series Capacitance Compensation

4.5 Performance Sensitivity Analysis

4.5.1 For Constant Speed

4.5.2 For Unregulated Prime Movers

4.6 Pole Changing SEIGs for Variable Speed Operation

4.7 Unbalanced Operation of Three-Phase SEIGs

4.8 One Phase Open at Power Grid

4.9 Three-Phase SEIG with Single-Phase Output

4.10 Two-Phase SEIGs with Single-Phase Output

4.11 Three-Phase SEIG Transients

4.12 Parallel Connection of SEIGs

4.13 Connection Transients in Cage Rotor Induction Generators at Power Grid

4.14 More on Power Grid Disturbance Transients in Cage Rotor Induction Generators

Chapter 5: Stator Converter Controlled Induction Generators (SCIGs)

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Grid Connected SCIGs: The Control System

5.2.1 The Machine-Side PWM Converter Control

5.2.1.1 State Observers for DTFC of SCIGs

5.2.1.2 The DTFC–SVM Block

5.2.2 Grid-Side Converter Control

5.3 Grid Connection and Four-Quadrant Operation of SCIGs

5.4 Stand-Alone Operation of SCIG

5.5 Parallel Operation of SCIGs

5.6 Static Capacitor Exciter Stand-Alone IG for Pumping Systems

5.7 Operation of SCIGs with DC Voltage Controlled Output

5.8 Dual Stator Winding for Grid Applications

Chapter 6: Automotive Claw-Pole-Rotor Generator Systems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Construction and Principle

6.3 Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) Modeling

6.4 Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method (3D FEM) Modeling

6.5 Losses, Efficiency, and Power Factor

6.6 Design Improvement Steps

6.6.1 Claw-Pole Geometry

6.6.2 Booster Diode Effects

6.6.3 Assisting Permanent Magnets

6.6.4 Increasing the Number of Poles

6.6.5 Winding Tapping (Reconfiguration)

6.6.6 Claw-Pole Damper

6.6.7 The Controlled Rectifier

6.7 The Lundell Starter/Generator for Hybrid Vehicles

Chapter 7: Induction Starter/Alternators (ISAs) for Electric Hybrid Vehicles (EHVs)

7.1 EHV Configuration

7.2 Essential Specifications

7.2.1 Peak Torque (Motoring) and Power (Generating)

7.2.2 Battery Parameters and Characteristics

7.3 Topology Aspects of Induction Starter/Alternator (ISA)

7.4 ISA Space-Phasor Model and Characteristics

7.5 Vector Control of ISA

7.6 DTFC of ISA

7.7 ISA Design Issues for Variable Speed

7.7.1 Power and Voltage Derating

7.7.2 Increasing Efficiency

7.7.3 Increasing the Breakdown Torque

7.7.4 Additional Measures for Wide Constant Power Range

7.7.4.1 Winding Reconfiguration

Chapter 8: Permanent-Magnet-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Starter/Alternators for Electric Hybrid Vehicles

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Topologies of PM-RSM

8.3 Finite Element Analysis

8.3.1 Flux Distribution

8.3.2 The d–q Inductances

8.3.3 The Cogging Torque

8.3.4 Core Losses Computation by FEM

8.4 The d–q Model of PM-RSM

8.5 Steady-State Operation at No Load and Symmetric Short-Circuit

8.5.1 Generator No-Load

8.5.2 Symmetrical Short-Circuit

8.6 Design Aspects for Wide Speed Range Constant Power Operation

8.7 Power Electronics for PM-RSM for Automotive Applications

8.8 Control of PM-RSM for EHV

8.9 State Observers without Signal Injection for Motion Sensorless Control

8.10 Signal Injection Rotor Position Observers

8.11 Initial and Low Speed Rotor Position Tracking

Chapter 9: Switched Reluctance Generators and Their Control

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Practical Topologies and Principles of Operation

9.2.1 The kW/Peak kVA Ratio

9.3 SRG(M) Modeling

9.4 The Flux/Current/Position Curves

9.5 Design Issues

9.5.1 Motor and Generator Specifications

9.5.2 Number of Phases, Stator and Rotor Poles: m, Ns, Nr

9.5.3 Stator Bore Diameter Dis and Stack Length

9.5.4 The Number of Turns per Coil Wc for Motoring

9.5.5 Current Waveforms for Generator Mode

9.6 PWM Converters for SRGs

9.7 Control of SRG(M)s

9.7.1 Feed-Forward Torque Control of SRG(M) with Position Feedback

9.8 Direct Torque Control of SRG(M)

9.9 Rotor Position and Speed Observers for Motion-Sensorless Control

9.9.1 Signal Injection for Standstill Position Estimation

9.10 Output Voltage Control in SRG

Chapter 10: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Systems

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Practical Configurations and Their Characterization

10.2.1 Distributed vs. Concentrated Windings

10.3 Airgap Field Distribution, emf and Torque

10.4 Stator Core Loss Modeling

10.4.1 FEM-Derived Core Loss Formulas

10.4.2 Simplified Analytical Core Loss Formulas

10.5 The Circuit Model

10.5.1 The Phase Coordinate Model

10.5.2 The d–q Model of PMSG

10.6 Circuit Model of PMSG with Shunt Capacitors and AC Load

10.7 Circuit Model of PMSG with Diode Rectifier Load

10.8 Utilization of Third Harmonic for PMSG with Diode Rectifiers

10.9 Autonomous PMSGs with Controlled Constant Speed and AC Load

10.10 Grid-Connected Variable-Speed PMSG System

10.10.1 The Diode Rectifier and Boost DC–DC Converter Case

10.11 The PM Genset with Multiple Outputs

10.12 Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Design Issues

10.12.1 Rotor Sizing

10.12.2 Stator Sizing

10.12.3 The Losses

10.13 Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Power Electronics Control Issues

10.14 Design of a 42 Vdc Battery-Controlled-Output PMSG System

10.14.1 Design Initial Data

10.14.2 The Minimum Speed: nmin

10.14.3 The Number of Poles: 2p1

10.14.4 The Rotor Configuration

10.14.5 The Stator Winding Type

10.14.6 Winding Tapping

10.14.7 The PMSG Current Waveform

10.14.8 The Diode Rectifier Imposes almost Unity Power Factor

10.14.9 Peak Torque-Based Sizing

10.14.10 Generator to DC Voltage Relationships

10.14.11 The PM, Ls, Rs Expressions

10.15 Methods for Testing PMSGs

10.15.1 Standstill Tests

10.15.2 No-Load Generator Tests

10.15.3 Short-Circuit Generator Tests

10.15.4 Stator Leakage Inductance and Skin Effect

10.15.5 The Motor No-Load Test

10.15.6 The Generator Load Tests

10.16 Note on Medium-Power Vehicular Electric Generator Systems

Chapter 11: Transverse Flux and Flux Reversal Permanent Magnet Generator Systems

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Three-Phase Transverse Flux Machine (TFM): Magnetic Circuit Design

11.2.1 The Phase Inductance Ls

11.2.2 Phase Resistance and Slot Area

11.3 TFM — the d–q Model and Steady State

11.4 The Three-Phase Flux Reversal Permanent Magnet Generator: Magnetic and Electric Circuit Design

11.4.1 Preliminary Geometry for 200 Nm at 128 rpm via Conceptual Design

11.4.2 FEM Analysis of Pole-PM FRM at No Load

11.4.3 FEM Analysis at Steady State on Load

11.4.4 FEM Computation of Inductances

11.4.5 Inductances and the Circuit Model of FRM

11.4.6 The d–q Model of FRM

11.4.7 Notes on Flux Reversal Generator (FRG) Control

Chapter 12: Linear Motion Alternators (LMAs)

12.1 Introduction

12.2 LMA Principle of Operation

12.2.1 The Motion Equation

12.3 PM-LMA with Coil Mover

12.4 Multipole LMA with Coil Plus Iron Mover

12.5 PM-Mover LMAs

12.6 The Tubular Homopolar PM Mover Single-Coil LMA

12.7 The Flux Reversal LMA with Mover PM Flux Concentration

12.8 PM-LMAs with Iron Mover

12.9 The Flux Reversal PM-LMA Tubular Configuration

12.9.1 The Analytical Model

12.10 Control of PM-LMAs

12.10.1 Electrical Control

12.10.2 The Spark-Ignited Gasoline Linear Engine Model

12.10.3 Note on Stirling Engine LMA Stability

12.11 Progressive-Motion LMAs for Maglevs with Active Guideway

12.11.1 Note on Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Linear Generators

**Download Electric Generators Handbook Variable Speed Generators Second Version by Ion Boldea PDF free**